Accelerated heterologous adenovirus prime-boost SIV vaccine in neonatal rhesus monkeys.

TitleAccelerated heterologous adenovirus prime-boost SIV vaccine in neonatal rhesus monkeys.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsLiu J, Li H, Iampietro JM, Barouch DH
JournalJ Virol
Date Published2012 Aug

A pediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine would be desirable to protect infants against HIV-1 transmission from breast-feeding. Such a vaccine would need to induce protective immunity at mucosal surfaces in neonates as soon as possible after birth. Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vectors have been shown to elicit potent systemic and mucosal virus-specific immune responses in adult nonhuman primates and humans, but these vectors have not previously been comprehensively studied in infants. In this study, we demonstrate that a single injection of rAd26 encoding simian immunodeficiency virus mac239 (SIVmac239) Gag on the day of birth elicited detectable Gag-specific cellular immune responses in rhesus monkeys, but these responses were transient and waned quickly. In contrast, an accelerated heterologous prime-boost regimen involving administration of rAd35 at birth and rAd26 at 4 weeks of life elicited potent and durable Gag-specific cellular and humoral immune responses in neonatal rhesus monkeys, including mucosal responses that remained detectable at 1 year of age. These results suggest the potential of an accelerated heterologous rAd prime-boost regimen as a candidate HIV-1 vaccine for newborns.

Alternate JournalJ. Virol.
PubMed ID22593160